Winter in Romania and Bulgaria transforms the landscapes into fairy-like wonderlands blanketed in pristine snow. Children joyfully run around, their laughter echoing through picturesque countryside scenes. Winter holds a special place in the hearts of these communities, with traditions deeply rooted in culture and history. 

Christmas Traditions

In Romania and Bulgaria, winter is marked by significant religious celebrations that hold deep cultural and spiritual meaning. One of the most important celebrations in both countries is Christmas, celebrated with great enthusiasm and devotion. 

In Romania, Christmas is often preceded by a fasting period, culminating in the midnight Christmas Eve service, known as “Masa de Craciun.” Families gather for a festive meal, exchange gifts, and attend church services to commemorate the birth of Jesus.

Christmas, or “Koleda” as it is known locally, is also a cherished holiday in Bulgaria. The celebration includes traditional rituals like “koleduvane,” where groups of children and young people go from house to house, singing carols and receiving treats in return. The midnight Christmas Mass is a central part of the celebration, emphasizing the holiday’s religious significance.

These religious celebrations play a crucial role in shaping the cultural identity of Romania and Bulgaria, blending faith, traditions, and a sense of community during the winter season.

In Romania and Bulgaria, Christmas is a time for family, warmth, and celebration. Decorating the Christmas tree, “împodobirea bradului,” is a cherished tradition, filling homes with the festive spirit. Caroling, or “Colindatul” in Romania and “Koliadari” in Bulgaria, sees groups of singers spreading joy and good wishes throughout the neighborhoods. 

The Christmas markets, adorned with lights and decorations, create a magical atmosphere. Families visit them, have fun together, and then gather inside their homes for a festive Christmas meal, where traditional dishes like cozonac (sweet bread), sarmale (cabbage rolls), and hearty pork dishes are enjoyed. 

Notably, both Romanian and Bulgarian families await for Moș Crăciun or Diado Koleda (Santa Claus) to bring gifts to children on the night of the 24th of December. 

New Year’s Rituals 

  1. Banitsa’s Fortunes: A Bulgarian New Year’s Delight

In Bulgaria, the New Year’s Eve dinner carries a special symbol known as “Banitsa.” What makes it unique on New Year’s is the inclusion of fortunes—pieces of paper bearing written wishes and even a coin. Some add a piece of dogwood branch, symbolizing health. 

  1. New Year’s Traditions in the Countryside

As the New Year approaches in Romania, traditions spring to life, especially in the picturesque Bucovina region. Here, the Sorcova tradition involves gentle, well-wishing taps with a decorated stick, symbolizing health and prosperity. Lively performances such as “Capra” and “Plugușorul” bring communities together, embodying the essence of ancient customs and cultural richness. 

Children with Sorcova

While cities celebrate New Year’s Eve with parties and modern revelry, Romania’s countryside takes a step back. In rural communities, traditions are steeped in rituals and folk customs. Armed with plows, bulls, and sheep bells, children visit each household to spread New Year’s wishes. 

Masked dances, horse performances, and outlaws’ dramas take center stage, creating a magical spectacle that bridges ancient traditions with the present.

  1. Masks and choreography in the streets

A common thread in Romanian New Year traditions is the use of masks, representing spirits of ancestors, animals, vegetation, or water spirits. Crafted from leather, cloth, fur, wood, bark, or animal horns, these masks create a fantastic world born from traditional beliefs. Different regions showcase unique choreography, with Moldova featuring lively customs caroling from house to house with whistles and shouts.

In Bulgaria, the Surva festival features vibrant masquerade games, with “Survakari” and “Kukeri” – people wear elaborate costumes and masks to ward off evil spirits. The “Kukeri” tradition, documented in various articles, showcases the cultural richness and the deep connection to ancient customs.

  1. Celebration of Saint Yordan

In Bulgaria, a unique tradition known as Epiphany Day unfolds after New Year’s Eve, specifically on the 6th of January. While polar bears might be accustomed to icy waters, here in Bulgaria, brave men take a plunge into freezing rivers, regardless of the harsh winter conditions. In this annual ritual, a local priest tosses a cross into the river, daring participants to be the first to retrieve it. 

The ritual persists when faced with snow, biting winds, or subzero temperatures. Those seeking spiritual cleansing and illness protection take home some water before the cross is cast. The belief is that the one retrieving the cross will enjoy productivity and good health throughout the year.

Saint Nicholas Day. A Celebration of Generosity

Saint Nicholas Day holds a special place in the hearts of Balkan communities, bringing a unique blend of religious reverence and festive traditions. Celebrated on the 6th of December, the day honors Saint Nicholas, the patron saint of children, sailors, and merchants. 

In countries like Bulgaria and Romania, Saint Nicholas, known as Mos Nicolae, is a beloved figure who is said to bring gifts to children from the night of the 5th of December to the 6th. Children excitedly leave their shoes or boots by the window, and Saint Nicholas is believed to fill them with small gifts, candies, and treats. This generosity is a cherished tradition that adds to the magic of the holiday season for families.

In Bulgaria, it’s common to see processions and parades in honor of Saint Nicholas, where participants often dress up as the saint and his companions. The day is also an opportunity for acts of charity, with people contributing to the less fortunate and emphasizing the spirit of giving.

Traditional Winter Delicacies 


Indulging in traditional Romanian dishes during Christmas is a feast for the senses, a celebration of flavors that resonate with authenticity. At the heart of the festive table is “Sarmale,” cabbage rolls filled with a flavorful mixture of minced pork, rice, and spices, symbolizing abundance and joy. 

Accompanying these delights is “Mămăligă,” a warm cornmeal porridge providing a hearty and comforting base to the festive spread. “Cozonac,” a rich and sweet bread filled with walnuts, cocoa, and Turkish delight, is a Christmas staple to satisfy sweet cravings. 

The holiday wouldn’t be complete without “Salată de Boeuf,” a festive potato salad featuring diced vegetables and meat bound together with mayonnaise. These traditional delicacies represent the authentic taste of Romanian Christmas and embody the spirit of togetherness and cherished culinary heritage.


In Bulgaria, the festive season brings forth a delectable array of traditional dishes that capture the essence of Christmas. A culinary centerpiece is “Banitsa,” a flaky pastry filled with eggs, cheese, and sometimes spinach, offering a savory delight that symbolizes prosperity. Another cherished dish is “Kapama,” a slow-cooked stew combining various types of meat such as pork, chicken, and sausage, creating a rich and flavorful ensemble. 

To satisfy the sweet tooth, “Kozunak,” a sweet bread enriched with eggs, butter, and sugar, studded with raisins and walnuts, graces the holiday table. Bulgarians also enjoy “Sarmi,” cabbage rolls filled with a compelling blend of minced meat, rice, and spices, bringing a sense of warmth and tradition to festive gatherings. 

A Winter Visit with Balkan Trails

In a winter journey through Romania and Bulgaria, dive into timeless traditions in charming villages like Maramureș and Bucovina. Picture people in traditional garb, horse-drawn sleigh rides, and the enchanting Mocănița steam train—authenticity at its best. 

For a trip as unique as the traditions, drop us an email at Balkan Trails. We’ll ensure your adventure is a cultural feast, creating memories that echo the rich heritage of these Eastern European gems.