Sofia, the charming capital city of Bulgaria, is a destination that seamlessly blends rich history, modern vibrancy, and a warm, welcoming atmosphere. Nestled in the heart of the Balkans, this city has a lot to offer to curious travelers like you.

From its awe-inspiring historical landmarks to delicious traditional cuisine and beautiful parks, Sofia promises an unforgettable experience. In this guide, we’ll take you through everything you need to know to make the most of your trip to Sofia.

Did you know that Sofia is one of the oldest cities in Europe? The city’s history dates back over 7,000 years, making it even older than Rome. So, when you explore Sofia, you’re not just visiting a capital city but also stepping back through layers of history and culture.

How to get to Sofia

Your journey to Sofia typically begins at Sofia International Airport (SOF), well-connected to major European cities, the United States, and Australia. (through major international hubs) 

Sofia Airport is a key gateway to Bulgaria, offering convenient access to a vast network of destinations. The airport collaborates with over 45 airlines, connecting travelers to 65 direct destinations, primarily within Europe.

Most of these routes are serviced by prestigious European carriers, including Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, British Airways, Air France, Aeroflot, and CSA. This diverse range of international flights ensures visitors worldwide can easily reach Sofia, underscoring the city’s status as a vibrant and accessible European capital. 

Upon arrival, you’ll find the airport efficiently linked to the city center by various transportation options. The most popular choice is the Metro, which connects the airport to various central locations, allowing you to reach your accommodation easily.

Exploring Historic Landmarks & Attractions

Sofia, Bulgaria’s capital, has a profound and enduring heritage stretching back thousands of years, making it one of Europe’s most ancient, continuously inhabited urban centers. Throughout history, Sofia has served as a shelter for many tribes, communities, kingdoms, and empires, each contributing to its rich cultural mosaic. Amidst its enchanting cityscape, remnants of this vibrant history are scattered, offering a captivating journey through the past.

While bearing different names throughout its existence, the city was officially established as Serdica under the rule of Trajan. Sofia’s landscape bears witness to the rise and fall of numerous empires, including the Odrysian Kingdom, Roman Empire, Bulgarian Kingdom, Byzantine Empire, Mongol Empire, Ottoman Empire, and even the Soviet Union.

This strategic locale held immense significance for controlling the Balkans and, as a result, attracted a procession of kings, scholars, poets, and other illustrious historical figures. Today, the landmarks left behind by these great empires have become cherished tourist attractions, preserving and celebrating the city’s rich and diverse history. 

Let’s talk about some of the most popular ones you could include on your itinerary:

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral

Your Sofia adventure isn’t complete without a visit to the magnificent Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. This iconic symbol of the city stands as one of the largest Eastern Orthodox cathedrals in the world. Its stunning gold-plated domes and intricate architecture will leave you in awe. 

The cathedral was erected in honor of the Russian soldiers who made the ultimate sacrifice during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877. This pivotal conflict marked Bulgaria’s liberation from Ottoman rule, an important event in its history. The cathedral was dedicated to Saint Alexander Nevsky, a Russian prince from the early 13th century, as a symbol of gratitude for Russia’s support during the war. 

The cathedral’s construction commenced with laying its foundations in 1882, but the grand structure wasn’t fully completed until 1912. Among its striking features, the central dome rises to a soaring height of 150 feet, while the bell tower reaches an impressive 175 feet. Marble elements and lighting fixtures were crafted in Munich, metalwork was fashioned in Berlin, and ornate gates and intricate mosaics were imported from Venice. 

A lesser-known historical tidbit adds intrigue to the cathedral’s narrative: during World War I, the cathedral’s name was altered to the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral. It was a reflection of the shifting alliances of the time, as Bulgaria and Russia found themselves on opposing sides of the conflict. However, the cathedral reclaimed its original name in 1920, and its significance was underscored when it was declared a monument of culture on September 12, 1924. 

Positioned at the heart of the capital city, the cathedral graces the central square of Sofia. It shares its surroundings with esteemed institutions such as the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Bulgarian Parliament, and the Monument to the Unknown Soldier, a sad yet honorable tribute to those who gave their lives in the service of Bulgaria.

The Russian Church

Strolling down the enchanting ‘Tsar Osvoboditel’ street in Sofia, your eyes will be drawn to the gleaming gold domes that crown what’s often referred to as ‘the prettiest church in Sofia.’ This architectural gem, the Church of St. Nicholas the Miracle-Maker, is a breathtaking sight to behold. Its high central dome, flanked by four smaller golden domes, harmoniously contrasts with the green majolica tile roofing.

Designed by Russian architect Preobrajenski and constructed by Russian artisans between 1912 and 1914, the exterior of this remarkable white and green structure easily outshines its more modest and dimly lit interior. However, the church’s true gems lie within its walls, where you’ll discover frescoes painted in the style of the renowned Novgorod icon school.

One of the Russian Church’s hidden treasures is its crypt, accessible to the left of the main entrance. Here lies the resting place of the former Bishop Serafin, who passed away in 1950. Locals and visitors flock to this crypt, leaving handwritten messages in a box to the right of the tomb. This crypt holds a unique aura of spiritual significance, and leaving handwritten notes is a touching tradition connecting individuals to the church’s mystical legacy.

What truly makes the Russian Church in Sofia a must-visit is its striking contrast between the serenity within its walls and the dynamic energy of the bustling Tsar Osvoboditel street just beyond its entrance. Stepping inside this sanctuary, you’ll find yourself instantly transported to a realm of tranquility and contemplation, a stark juxtaposition to the lively and vibrant world outside. 

The Central Mineral Baths of Sofia

The Central Mineral Baths, built in the early 20th century, offer a glimpse into the city’s past. While you can’t take a dip anymore, the architecture is a sight to behold. The nearby park is a peaceful place to take a leisurely stroll. 

Few modern-day visitors may realize that the Bulgarian capital, Sofia, owes its very existence to the presence of its natural thermal springs. These mineral-rich pools, once inhabited by Thracian tribes, charmed the Romans in the first century, leading to a significant settlement in the area. Centuries later, during the Ottoman era, the value of these salubrious springs endured.

The Ottomans, too, recognized their potential, incorporating these natural waters into the city’s daily life, using them for both drinking and bathing. This historical heritage lingers in Sofia, highlighting its origins where people sought restoration, relaxation, and revitalization.

The Ancient Serdica Archaeological Complex

The Ancient Serdica Archaeological Complex, nestled in the heart of Sofia, Bulgaria, is a contemporary marvel fully unveiled in 2016. This exceptional site seamlessly intertwines ancient Roman ruins with the functionality of a modern metro station, offering a captivating journey through time.

Portions of this complex are gracefully sheltered beneath glass domes, providing a unique perspective where you can witness the symbiosis of historical remnants and contemporary architectural wonders. 

In recent years, introducing a new Metro line has unveiled an extraordinary vista that encapsulates the city’s history in a sweeping view. From the ancient settlements that harken back to Roman times to the cutting-edge modern architecture and even the echoes of socialist history found in the remains of the past century, this complex offers a unique opportunity to witness the multifaceted history of Sofia in a single, breathtaking panorama.

The Boyana Church 

In the heart of the Middle Ages, the formidable Bulgarian fortress of Boyana, also known as Batil, proudly stood its ground on the lower slopes of Mount Vitosha, now nestled within the modern Sofia suburb of Boyana.

The historical origins of this name can be traced back to the year 969, when it was first recorded. In its heyday, Boyana was a key component among the thirty-five fortresses and settlements that composed the intricate fortification network protecting the city of Sredets, known today as Sofia. It was within the sturdy walls of Boyana’s fortress that the Boyana Church emerged, a splendid testament to medieval architecture and monumental art, preserving the rich history of this remarkable era.

This architectural wonder was originally designed as a chapel and adhered to a classic Greek cross plan. Its structural design featured a dome and a concealed internal cross, notably lacking free-standing support and a narthex. What’s truly remarkable is that this architectural gem was crafted entirely from brickwork, exemplifying the enduring craftsmanship of the era.

The Boyana Church, a true cultural treasure, was officially declared a national antiquity in 1927, gaining the protective mantle of the state. This historical site remained an active church for nearly three decades, serving the community’s spiritual needs until 1954. In 1979, the Boyana Church attained global recognition when it earned a coveted place on the UNESCO World Heritage List, designated under the protective umbrella of UNESCO as No. 42. Since 2003, this remarkable cultural property has been lovingly curated as a branch of the National History Museum, ensuring its continued preservation and accessibility.

Ivan Vazov National Theater

Renowned as Bulgaria’s largest, oldest, and most prominent theatrical institution, the “Ivan Vazov” National Theatre stands as a majestic icon within the country’s cultural landscape. Nestled in the heart of Sofia, this theater is celebrated for its prime city-center location and awe-inspiring architectural grandeur. 

Situated in the center of Sofia, the theater’s imposing edifice gracefully faces the City Garden, serving as a visual centerpiece within the city. The Ivan Vazov National Theatre boasts a well-appointed main stage, offering a seating capacity 750, ensuring an immersive and unforgettable theatrical experience.

Complementing this main stage, the theater also features a more intimate 120-seat stage and an additional 70-seat venue on the fourth floor. The theater’s commitment to excellence extends to its talented ensemble, including some of the nation’s most acclaimed actors and accomplished stage directors, many of whom have garnered widespread recognition and admiration. 

Banya Bashi Mosque in Sofia

Once, Sofia bore witness to a rich tapestry of mosques, numbering as many as 70, resonating with the echoes of the past. However, only the Banya Bashi Mosque remains a living testament to the city’s Islamic heritage.

Crafted in 1576, this architectural marvel is the handiwork of the distinguished Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, celebrated for his contributions, including the Sultan Selim Mosque in Edirne and the illustrious Blue Mosque in Istanbul.  

Its name, Banya Bashi, which translates to ‘a lot of baths,’ is a nod to the neighboring Tsentralnata Banya, or Central Baths. The Bulgarian word “Banya” denotes a bath, a cultural element that carries significance in this historical context. 

While its exterior may appear unassuming, it is within the hallowed walls of the Banya Bashi Mosque that true magnificence unfolds. The interior is a sight to behold, adorned with aquamarine tiles that envelop the midrib and the eastern wall. 

Many mosques existed, but today, they have been repurposed or lost over time. Some of these historical mosques included the Central Sofia Mosque, the Pasha’s Mosque, the Haji Rila Mosque, and the Yahya Pasha Mosque.

Banya Bashi Mosque graciously welcomes visitors outside prayer times with no entrance fee. Modest attire is appreciated, and remember to remove your shoes before entering. Photography is generally allowed, but checking if anyone is praying during your visit is considerate. These guidelines help ensure a respectful and enjoyable experience at this historic site.

Enjoy Traditional Cuisine at Street Side Cafes and Cozy Bulgarian Restaurants

Exploring Sofia’s restaurants is a delightful journey in itself. The city is known for its mouthwatering traditional Bulgarian cuisine. Here are a few places to savor local delicacies:

  1. Shtastlivetsa – This restaurant offers an extensive menu, impeccable service, and reasonable prices. Whether savoring mouthwatering meat dishes or tempting desserts, Shtastlivetsa guarantees a culinary adventure that’s simply unmissable.

Photo credits: Shtastlivetsa

  1. Boho – Who can resist the charm of a well-decorated café and restaurant serving delectable cuisine? Boho sets the ideal scene for a delightful brunch. The menu suits every palate with its harmonious blend of local delicacies and beloved international classics. The experience is further elevated by the freshness and scrumptiousness of the dishes, and all are enjoyed in the company of a bustling crowd comprising both tourists and locals. 
  2. The Hadjidragana Tavern  – Looking for a traditional Bulgarian meal? From the moment you walk into the Hadjidragana Tavern, you know this is a unique place. You can see the traditional tapestries, decorations, and stone walls of the cave-like cellar décor. The menu is complete with very traditional Bulgarian dishes, and they offer live Bulgarian music almost every day of the week.
  3. Bar Petak –  Frequently hailed as one of Sofia’s top nightclubs, Bar Petak gained widespread acclaim primarily due to its music diversity. The perfect place for those young at heart who love testing the nightlife. 

Shopping in Sofia 

Sofia offers diverse shopping experiences, from local markets to modern malls. You can find traditional Bulgarian crafts, clothing, and souvenirs. For high-quality shopping, check out Vitosha Street, where you’ll discover designer boutiques and international brands. The Central Market Hall is a great place to sample local foods and pick up fresh produce. Explore Sofia’s shopping scene further here

Where to stay – Sofia’s Hotels recommendations


Situated in Sofia, Hotel 36 features a charming terrace, with notable attractions like Banya Bashi Mosque and the Council of Ministers Building nearby. Nestled within the Centrum district, it’s just a 7-minute stroll from the presidential residence.


The Grand Hotel Sofia is a luxurious 5-star hotel in the city’s heart. Its elegant rooms and impeccable service make it an excellent choice for travelers who want to indulge in a touch of luxury. 

A Central Airbnb Studio on Vitosha Street

Amid a vibrant array of clubs, pubs, live music venues, and an eclectic range of international and local dining choices, this cozy Sofia Airbnb provides effortless access to the city’s diverse entertainment offerings. 

Parks and gardens in Sofia 

The capital of Bulgaria is a city that boasts a variety of beautiful parks and gardens, offering locals and tourists a breath of fresh air and natural beauty within an urban environment. Here are some of the most notable parks and gardens to explore in Sofia: 

City Garden (Gradski Park): Located in the heart of Sofia, the City Garden is a charming urban oasis. It features tree-lined pathways, well-maintained flowerbeds, and several sculptures. It’s a great place for a leisurely stroll or a peaceful break from the city’s hustle and bustle.

Borisova Gradina: As one of the largest parks in Sofia, Borisova Gradina is a favorite spot for locals. It includes a large lake, walking and cycling paths, sports facilities, and an open-air fitness area. It’s an excellent place for outdoor activities and picnics.

Ariana Lake & Boris Garden: This park is home to Ariana Lake, a charming water feature surrounded by well-maintained greenery. The park is especially lovely in the spring when the flowers bloom.

Everything you need to know about transportation in Sofia

If you don’t rent a car, Sofia boasts a well-organized public transportation system. It is the sole Bulgarian city with a metro system comprising four lines that collectively cater to over 50,000 passengers. In addition, the city maintains an extensive network of buses, trolleybuses, and trams, ensuring seamless connectivity between all neighborhoods and the city center. 

Each passenger must possess a valid transport document when utilizing public transportation in Sofia. The city has implemented an efficient fare collection system, facilitating online acquisition of the latest transport document, the Sofia city card. Diverse subscription card options are available, and parents can purchase cards for their children or adult family members through their profiles on the Centre for Urban Mobility web portal. 

Other attractions nearby

Sofia’s surroundings offer incredible opportunities for outdoor adventures. Consider taking a day trip to the Vitosha Mountains and Vitosha Natural Park, where you can hike and enjoy stunning city views. During the winter months, these mountains become popular skiing and snowboarding destinations. Take advantage of the breathtaking Boyana Waterfall, a picturesque natural wonder worth the short trek. Learn more here.

Plan your trip to Sofia

Sofia is a destination that seamlessly blends history, culture, and natural beauty. Whether you’re fascinated by the city’s rich history, eager to explore its vibrant culinary scene, or simply looking to relax in its picturesque parks, Sofia has something to offer for every type of traveler. 

Take the chance to immerse yourself in the charm of this Balkan gem. Start planning your Sofia adventure today, and remember to check out some fantastic guided tours in Bulgaria with Balkan Trails to make your trip even more memorable!